From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see
redirects here. For the novel, see Angelology
Schutzengel (English: "Guardian Angel") by
Plockhorst depicts a guardian
angel watching over two children
An angel is a supernatural
being or spirit
found in various religions
religions they are often depicted as benevolent celestial beings
who act as intermediaries between Heaven
and Earth, or as
spirits or a guiding influence.
Other roles of angels include protecting and guiding human beings,
and carrying out God's
The term "angel" has also been expanded to various notions
of spirits found in many other religious traditions. The theological
study of angels is known as "angelology".
art, angels are often depicted with bird-like
wings on their back, a halo, robes and various forms of glowing
Sculpture of Angel bearing Veronica's
Veil by Cosimo
Fancelli at Ponte Sant Angelo.
Three angels hosted by Abraham,
Carracci (1555–1619), Bologna, Pinacoteca Nazionale.
The word angel in English is a blend of Old
English engel (with a hard g) and Old
Both derive from Late
Latin angelus "messenger of God", which in turn
was borrowed from Late
ángelos. According to R.
S. P. Beekes, ángelos itself may be "an
Oriental loan, like ἄγγαρος
['Persian mounted courier']."
The word's earliest form is Mycenaean
a-ke-ro attested in Linear
B syllabic script.
The ángelos is the default
Septuagint's translation of the Biblical
Hebrew term mal’ākh
denoting simply "messenger" without specifying its nature.
In the Latin Vulgate, however, the meaning becomes bifurcated: when
mal’ākh or ángelos is supposed to
denote a human messenger, words like nuntius or legatus
are applied. If the word refers to some supernatural being, the word
angelus appears. Such differentiation has been taken over by
later vernacular translations of the Bible, early Christian and
Jewish exegetes and eventually modern scholars.
Main article: Angels
The oldest portion of the Bible, known as the Pentateuch,
uses the (Hebrew) terms מלאך
'ĕlōhîm; messenger of God), מלאך
of the Lord), בני
sons of God)
holy ones) to refer to beings traditionally interpreted as angels.
Later texts use other terms, such as העליונים
(hā'elyônîm; the upper ones).
The term מלאך
(mal'āk̠) is also used in other books
of the Tanakh; a
similar Arabic term, ملائكة
(malā'ikah), is used in the Qur'an.
Depending on the context, the Hebrew and Arabic words may refer to a
human messenger or to a supernatural messenger. A human messenger
might be a prophet or priest, such as Malachi,
"my messenger"; the Greek superscription in the Septuagint
translation states the Book
of Malachi was written "by the hand of his messenger"
Examples of a supernatural messenger
are the "Malak
YHWH," who is either a messenger from God,
an aspect of God (such as the Logos),
or God himself as the messenger (the "theophanic
D. Coogan notes that it is only in the late books that the terms
"come to mean the benevolent semi divine beings familiar from
later mythology and art."
is the first biblical figure to refer to individual angels by
(God's primary messenger) in Daniel 9:21 and Michael
(the holy fighter) in Daniel 10:13. These angels are part of Daniel's
apocalyptic visions and are an important part of all apocalyptic
Coogan explains the development of this concept of angels: "In
the postexilic period, with the development of explicit monotheism,
these divine beings—the 'sons of God' who were members of the
Council—were in effect demoted to what are now known as
'angels', understood as beings created by God, but immortal and thus
superior to humans."
This conception of angels is best understood in contrast to demons
and is often thought to be "influenced by the ancient Persian
religious tradition of Zoroastrianism,
which viewed the world as a battleground between forces of good and
forces of evil, between light and darkness."
One of these is hāšāṭān,
a figure depicted in (among other places) the Book
of Alexandria identifies the angel with the Logos inasmuch as the
angel is the immaterial voice of God. The angel is something
different from God Himself, but is conceived as God's instrument.
In post-Biblical Judaism, certain angels took on particular
significance and developed unique personalities and roles. Though
were believed to rank among the heavenly
host, no systematic hierarchy ever developed. Metatron
is considered one of the highest of the angels in Merkabah
mysticism and often serves as a scribe; he is briefly mentioned in
and figures prominently in Merkabah mystical texts. Michael, who
serves as a warrior
and advocate for Israel (Daniel
10:13), is looked upon particularly fondly.
Gabriel is mentioned in the Book
of Daniel (Daniel
8:15–17) and briefly in the Talmud,
as well as in many Merkabah mystical texts. There is no evidence in
Judaism for the worship
of angels, but there is evidence for the invocation
and sometimes even conjuration
explained his view of angels in his Guide
for the Perplexed II:4 and II
... This leads Aristotle
in turn to the demonstrated fact that God, glory and majesty to Him,
does not do things by direct contact. God burns things by means of
fire; fire is moved by the motion of the sphere; the sphere is moved
by means of a disembodied intellect, these intellects being the
'angels which are near to Him', through whose mediation the spheres
[planets] move ... thus totally disembodied minds exist which
emanate from God and are the intermediaries between God and all the
bodies [objects] here in this world.
—Guide for the Perplexed II:4, Maimonides
According to Kabalah,
there are four worlds and our world is the last world: the world of
action (Assiyah). Angels exist in the worlds above as a 'task' of
God. They are an extension of God to produce effects in this world.
After an angel has completed its task, it ceases to exist. The angel
is in effect the task. This is derived from the book
of Genesis when Abraham meets with three angels and Lot meets
with two. The task of one of the angels was to inform Abraham of his
coming child. The other two were to save Lot and to destroy Sodom
One of Melozzo's
musician (seraphim) angels from the Basilica dei Santi Apostoli, now
in the sacristy of St. Peter's Basilica
Main article: Jewish
in his Yad
ha-Chazakah: Yesodei ha-Torah, counts ten ranks of angels in
the Jewish angelic hierarchy, beginning from the highest:
From the Jewish
Encyclopedia, entry "angelology".
(translation: who is like God?), kindness of God*
(archangel) (translation: the strength of God), performs acts
of justice and power*
(translation: God Heals), God's healing force
(translation: God is my light), leads us to destiny
(translation: the severity of God), angel
of death—see also Malach
HaMavet (translation: the angel of death)
(translation: bringing together), battles Samael and brings
(translation: Beauty of God), expelled Adam
and Eve from the Garden
of Eden holding a flaming sword and punishes those who
transgress against God.
*These are the only two angels to be mentioned by name in the
Hebrew Bible; the rest are from extra-biblical tradition.
Main article: Christian
Michael wears a late Roman military cloak and cuirass in this
17th-century depiction by Guido
Christians inherited Jewish understandings of angels, which in turn
may have been partly inherited from the Egyptians.
In the early stage, the Christian concept of an angel characterized
the angel as a messenger of God. Later came identification of
individual angelic messengers: Gabriel,
Uriel, and Lucifer.
Then, in the space of little more than two centuries (from the 3rd to
the 5th) the image of angels took on definite characteristics both in
theology and in art.
By the late
4th century, the Church
Fathers agreed that there were different categories of angels,
with appropriate missions and activities assigned to them. There was,
however, some disagreement regarding the nature of angels. Some
argued that angels had physical bodies,
while some maintained that they were entirely spiritual. Some
theologians had proposed that angels were not divine but on the level
of immaterial beings subordinate to the Trinity.
The resolution of this Trinitarian dispute included the development
of doctrine about angels.
The angels are represented throughout
the Christian Bible as spiritual beings intermediate between God and
men: "You have made him [man] a little less than the angels ..."
8:4-5). The Bible describes the function of angels as
"messengers" but does not indicate when the creation of
Some Christians believe that angels are created beings, based on
1:16): "praise ye Him, all His angels: praise ye Him, all
His hosts ... for He spoke and they were made. He commanded and
they were created ...". The Fourth
Lateran Council (1215) declared that the angels were created
beings. The Council's decree Firmiter credimus (issued against
declared both that angels were created and that men were created
after them. The First
Vatican Council (1869) repeated this declaration in Dei
Filius, the "Dogmatic constitution on the Catholic
(13th century) relates angels to Aristotle's metaphysics in his Summa
and in De substantiis separatis,
a treatise on angelology. Although angels have greater knowledge than
men, they are not omniscient,
as Matthew 24:36 points out.
An angel comforting Jesus, by Carl
Heinrich Bloch, 1865–1890.
Forget not to show love unto
strangers: for thereby some have entertained angels
Testament includes many interactions and conversations between
angels and humans. For instance, three separate cases of angelic
interaction deal with the births of John
the Baptist and Jesus
Christ. In Luke 1:11, an angel appears to Zechariah
to inform him that he will have a child despite his old age, thus
proclaiming the birth of John
the Baptist. In Luke 1:26 the Archangel
Gabriel visits the Virgin
Mary in the Annunciation
to foretell the birth of Jesus
Christ. Angels then proclaim the birth of Jesus in the Adoration
of the shepherds in Luke 2:10.
to Matthew 4:11, after Jesus spent 40 days in the desert, "...the
devil left him and, behold, angels came and ministered to him."
In Luke 22:43 an angel comforts Jesus
Christ during the Agony
in the Garden.
In Matthew 28:5 an angel speaks at the empty tomb, following the
of Jesus and the rolling back of the stone by angels.
In 1851 Pope
Pius IX approved the Chaplet
of Saint Michael based on the 1751 reported private
revelation from archangel
Michael to the Carmelite
nun Antonia d'Astonac.
In a biography of Saint Gemma
Galgani written by Venerable Germanus Ruoppolo, Galgani stated
that she had spoken with her guardian angel.
John Paul II emphasized the role of angels in Catholic teachings
in his 1986 address titled "Angels Participate In History Of
Salvation", in which he suggested that modern mentality
should come to see the importance of angels.
The New Church
In the New Church,
there is extensive information provided concerning angels and the
spiritual world in which they dwell from many years of spiritual
experiences recounted in the writings of Emanuel
Swedenborg. All angels are in human form with a spiritual body,
and are not just minds without form.
There are different orders of angels according to the three
and each angel dwells in one of innumerable societies of angels. Such
a society of angels can appear as one angel as a whole.
All angels originate from the human race, and there is not one angel
in heaven who first did not live in a material body.
Moreover, all children who die not only enter heaven but eventually
The life of angels is that of usefulness, and their functions are so
many that they cannot be enumerated. However each angel will enter a
service according to the use that they had performed in their earthly
Names of angels, such as Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael, signify a
particular angelic function rather than an individual being.
While living in one's body an individual has conjunction with heaven
through the angels,
and with each person, there are at least two evil spirits and two
Temptation or pains of conscience originates from a conflict between
evil spirits and angels.
Due to man's sinful nature it is dangerous to have open direct
communication with angels
and can only be seen when one's spiritual sight has been opened.
Thus from moment to moment angels attempt to lead each person to what
is good tacitly using the person's own thoughts.
Latter Day Saints
Temple statue of the Angel
Adherents of The
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) view
angels as the messengers of God. They are sent to mankind to deliver
messages, minister to humanity, teach doctrines of salvation, call
mankind to repentance, give priesthood
keys, save individuals in perilous times, and guide humankind.
Latter Day Saints believe that angels either are the spirits of
humans who are deceased or who have
yet to be born, or are humans who have been resurrected
and have physical bodies of flesh and bones,
and accordingly Joseph
Smith taught that "there are no angels who minister to this
earth but those that do belong or have belonged to it."
As such, Latter Day Saints also believe that Adam,
the first man, was and is now the archangel Michael,
and that Gabriel
lived on the earth as Noah.
Likewise the Angel
Moroni first lived in a pre-Columbian
American civilization as the 5th-century prophet-warrior named
Smith, Jr. described his first angelic encounter thus:
"While I was thus in the act of calling upon God, I
discovered a light appearing in my room, which continued to increase
until the room was lighter than at noonday, when immediately a
personage appeared at my bedside, standing in the air, for his feet
did not touch the floor.
He had on a loose robe of most exquisite whiteness. It
was a whiteness beyond anything earthly I had ever seen; nor do I
believe that any earthly thing could be made to appear so exceedingly
white and brilliant ...
Not only was his robe exceedingly white, but his whole
person was glorious beyond description, and his countenance truly
like lightning. The room was exceedingly light, but not so very
bright as immediately around his person. When I first looked upon
him, I was afraid; but the fear soon left me."
Most angelic visitations in the early
Day Saint movement were witnessed by Joseph Smith and Oliver
Cowdery, who both claimed (prior to the establishment of the
church in 1830) to have been visited by the prophet Moroni,
Baptist, and the apostles Peter,
Later, after the dedication of the Kirtland
Temple, Smith and Cowdery claimed to have been visited by Jesus,
and subsequently by Moses,
Elias, and Elijah.
People who claimed to have received a
visit by an angel include the other two of the Three
Whitmer and Martin
Harris. Many other Latter Day Saints, both in the early and
modern church, have claimed to have seen angels, though Smith posited
that, except in extenuating circumstances such as the restoration,
mortals teach mortals, spirits teach spirits, and resurrected beings
teach other resurrected beings.
Depiction of an angel in Shia
Main article: Islamic
view of angels
, Malāʾikah) are mentioned many times
in the Qur'an and
Hadith. Islam is
clear on the nature of angels in that they are messengers of God.
They have no free
will, and can do only what God
orders them to do.
An example of a task they carry out is that of testing individuals by
granting them abundant wealth and curing their illness.
Believing in angels is one of the six Articles
of Faith in Islam.
Some examples of angels in Islam:
the archangel Gabriel (Jibra'il or Jibril) is an archangel who
serves as a messenger from God.
(archangel): or Mikail, the angel of nature.
Israfel or Seraphim, Meaning: The Burning One
), is the angel of the trumpet in Islam,
though unnamed in the Qur'an.
Along with Mikhail,
Izra'il, he is one
of the four Islamic archangels.
Israfil will blow the trumpet from a holy rock in Jerusalem to
announce the Day of Resurrection.
The trumpet is constantly poised at his lips, ready to be blown when
God so orders.
the angels who travel in the earth searching out assemblies where
people remember God's name.
is Azraa-eel عزرائيل
or Izrail: the Angel of Death
Katibin: the two angels who record a person's good and bad
a class of guardian angels who keep people from death until its
and Nakir: the angels who test the faith of the dead in their
graves. They ask the soul of the dead person questions. If the
person fails the questions, the angels make the man suffer until the
Judgement. If the soul passes the questions, he will have a
pleasant time in the grave until the Day of Judgement.
the angel in charge of maintaining Jannat
the angel who keeps or guards hellfire.
and Marut (Arabic:
are two angels
mentioned in the second Surah
of the Qur'an,
who were sent down to test the people at Babel
or Babylon by
performing deeds of magic. (Sura
verse 102.) The Qur'an indicates that although they warned the
Babylonians not to imitate them or do as they were doing, some
members of their audience failed to obey and became sorcerers, thus
damning their own souls.
In his Book
of Certitude Bahá'u'lláh,
founder of the Bahá'í Faith, describes angels as people
who "have consumed, with the fire of the love of God, all human
traits and limitations", and have "clothed themselves"
with angelic attributes and have become "endowed with the
attributes of the spiritual". 'Abdu'l-Bahá
describes angels as the "confirmations of God and His celestial
powers" and as "blessed beings who have severed all ties
with this nether world" and "been released from the chains
of self", and "revealers of God's abounding grace".
The Bahá'í writings also refer to the Concourse
on High, an angelic host, and the Maid
of Heaven of Bahá'u'lláh's vision.
commentaries of Proclus
(4th century, under Christian rule) on the Timaeus
of Plato, Proclus
uses the terminology of "angelic" (aggelikos) and
"angel" (aggelos) in relation to metaphysical
beings. According to Aristotle,
just as there is a First
so, too, must there be spiritual secondary movers.
Main article: Zoroastrian
there are different angel-like figures. For example, each person has
angel, called Fravashi.
They patronize human beings and other creatures, and also manifest
God's energy. The Amesha
Spentas have often been regarded as angels, although there is no
direct reference to them conveying messages,
but are rather emanations of Ahura
Mazda ("Wise Lord", God); they initially appeared in an
abstract fashion and then later became personalized, associated with
diverse aspects of the divine creation.
(as Azraa-eel) is named as the angel of death in the Guru
Granth Sahib, the holy scripture and the final Guru
of the Sikhs.
In So Dar and
Raag Asa Sat Guru
Nanak mentions Chitragupta as the angel who record the deeds of
Kumaris uses the term "angel" to refer to a perfect, or
complete state of the human being, which they believe can be attained
through a connection with God.
In the teachings of Theosophy,
are regarded as living either in the atmospheres
of the planets of
the solar system
(Planetary Angels) or inside the Sun
(Solar Angels) and they help to guide the operation of the
processes of nature
such as the process of evolution
and the growth of plants;
their appearance is reputedly like colored flames about the size of a
human. It is believed by Theosophists that devas can be observed when
the third eye is
activated. Some (but not most) devas originally incarnated as human
believed by Theosophists that nature
and fairies can be
also be observed when the third
eye is activated.
It is maintained by Theosophists that these less evolutionarily
developed beings have never been previously incarnated as humans;
they are regarded as being on a separate line of spiritual evolution
called the "deva evolution"; eventually, as their souls
advance as they reincarnate,
it is believed they will incarnate as devas.
It is asserted by Theosophists
that all of the above-mentioned beings possess etheric
bodies that are composed of etheric
matter, a type of matter finer and more pure that is composed
of smaller particles than ordinary physical
See also: Hermetic
According to the Kabbalah
as described by the Golden
Dawn there are ten archangels,
each commanding one of the choir of angels and corresponding to one
of the Sephirot.
It is similar to the Jewish angelic hierarchy.
belief in angels
This section is outdated. Please update this article to
reflect recent events or newly available information. (July
Seal of Sant'Angelo
(rione of Rome)
A 2002 study based on interviews with
350 people, mainly in the UK, who said they have had an experience of
an angel, describes several types of such experiences: visions,
sometimes with multiple witnesses present; auditions, e.g. to convey
a warning; a sense of being touched, pushed, or lifted, typically to
avert a dangerous situation; and pleasant fragrance, generally in the
context of somebody's death. In the visual experiences, the angels
described appear in various forms, either the "classical"
one (human countenance with wings), in the form of extraordinarily
beautiful or radiant human beings, or as beings of light.
In the US, a 2008 survey by Baylor
University's Institute for Studies of Religion, published by TIME
which polled 1,700 respondents, found that 55 percent of Americans,
including one in five of those who say they are not religious,
believe that they have been protected by a guardian angel during
their life. An August 2007 Pew
poll found that 68 percent of Americans believe that "angels and
demons are active in the world",
and according to four different polls conducted in 2009, a greater
percentage of Americans believe in angels (55%) than those who
believe in global
According to the Gallup
Youth Survey, in a Teen Belief in the Supernatural poll in
1994, 76% of 508 teenagers (aged 13–17)believe in angels, In
1978, 64% of American young people believed in angels; in 1984, 69%
of teenagers believed in angels; and by 1994, that number grew to
76%, while belief in other supernatural concepts, such as the Loch
Ness monster and ESP,
has declined. In 1992, 80% of 502 surveyed teenage girls believe in
angels, and 81% of Catholic teens and 82% of regular church attendees
harbored beliefs in angels.
According to another set of Gallup polls, designated towards all
Americans, in 1994, 72% of Americans said they believed in angels,
while in 2004, 78% of the surveyed Americans indicated belief in
angels, with the percentage of Americans that did not believe in
angels dropping from 15% to 10%, and the percentage of Americans that
were "not sure" dropping from 13% to 11%.
A 2008 survey of over 1000 Canadians
found 67 percent believe in angels.
Angels in art
Main article: Angels
of the Archangels Michael
wearing the loros of the Imperial guards.
In an address during a General Audience of August 6, 1986, entitled
"Angels participate in the history of salvation", Pope John
Paul II explained that "[T]he angels have no 'body' (even if, in
particular circumstances, they reveal themselves under visible forms
because of their mission for the good of people)."
Angels are however often depicted in painting and sculpture as male
humans. Christian art perhaps reflects the descriptions in Revelation
4:6–8 of the Four
Living Creatures (Greek:
ζῷα) and the descriptions in the Hebrew Bible
of cherubim and
chayot in Ezekiel's
and the Seraphim of Isaiah).
However, while cherubim and seraphim have wings in the Bible, no
angel is mentioned as having wings.
The earliest known Christian image of an angel—in the Cubicolo
dell'Annunziazione in the Catacomb
of Priscilla (mid-3rd century)—is without wings. In that
same period, representations of angels on sarcophagi,
lamps and reliquaries
also show them without wings,
as for example the angel in the Sacrifice
of Isaac scene in the Sarcophagus
of Junius Bassus (although the side view of the Sarcophagus shows
winged angelic figures).
known representation of angels with wings is on the "Prince's
Sarcophagus", discovered in the 1930s at Sarigüzel, near
attributed to the time of Theodosius
From that period on, Christian art has represented angels mostly with
wings, as in the cycle of mosaics in the Basilica
of Saint Mary Major (432–440).
Four- and six-winged angels, drawn from the higher grades of angels
and seraphim) and
often showing only their faces and wings, are derived from Persian
art and are usually shown only in heavenly
contexts, as opposed to performing tasks on earth. They often
appear in the pendentives
of church domes or
Prior to the Judeo-Christian tradition, in the Greek world the
and the god Eros were
also depicted in human-like form with wings.
Chrysostom explained the significance of angels' wings:
They manifest a nature's
sublimity. That is why Gabriel is represented with wings. Not that
angels have wings, but that you may know that they leave the heights
and the most elevated dwelling to approach human nature. Accordingly,
the wings attributed to these powers have no other meaning than to
indicate the sublimity of their nature.
Angels are typically depicted in Mormon
art as having no wings based on a quote from Joseph Smith ("An
angel of God never has wings").
In terms of their clothing, angels, especially the Archangel
Michael, were depicted as military-style agents of God and came to be
shown wearing Late
Antique military uniform. This uniform could be the normal
military dress, with a tunic to about the knees, an armour
breastplate and pteruges,
but was often the specific dress of the bodyguard of the Byzantine
Emperor, with a long tunic and the loros,
the long gold and jewelled pallium
restricted to the Imperial family and their closest guards. The basic
military dress was shown in Western art into the Baroque
period and beyond (see Reni picture above), and up to the present day
Other angels came to be conventionally depicted in long robes, and in
the later Middle Ages they often wear the vestments of a deacon,
a cope over a
costume was used especially for Gabriel
scenes—for example the Annunciation
in Washington by Jan
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"God's messengers, those individuals whom he sends (often from
his personal presence in the eternal worlds), to deliver his
1:11–38); to minister to his children (Acts
10:30–32); to teach them the doctrines of salvation
(Mosiah 3); to call them to repentance (Moro. 7:31); to give them
priesthood and keys (D.&C. 13; 128:20–21); to save them in
perilous circumstances (Nehemiah
6:22); to guide them in the performance of his work (Genesis
24:7); to gather his elect in the last days (Matthew
24:31); to perform all needful things relative to his work
(Moro. 7:29–33)—such messengers are called angels.".
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Kainz, Howard P., "Active
and Passive Potency" in Thomistic Angelology Martinus
Kreeft, Peter J. 1995. Angels
and Demons: What Do We Really Know About Them? Ignatius Press.
Lewis, James R. (1995). Angels
A to Z. Visible Ink Press. ISBN
Melville, Francis, 2001. The
Book of Angels: Turn to Your Angels for Guidance, Comfort, and
Inspiration. Barron's Educational Series; 1st edition. ISBN
Michalak, Aleksander R. (2012),
Angels as Warriors in Late Second Temple Jewish Literature.Mohr
Muehlberger, Ellen (2013). Angels
in Late Ancient Christianity. Oxford University Press. ISBN
Ronner, John, 1993. Know Your
Angels: The Angel Almanac With Biographies of 100 Prominent Angels
in Legend & Folklore-And Much More! Mamre Press. ISBN
and its Wonders and Hell From Things Heard and Seen
(Swedenborg Foundation 1946), ISBN
0-554-62056-1 (Detailed information on angels and their life in
Swedenborg, E. Wisdom's
Delight in Marriage ("Conjugial") Love: Followed by
Insanity's Pleasure in Promiscuous Love (Swedenborg
Foundation 1979 ISBN
0-87785-054-2) (Extensive review of angelic marriage)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Angels.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Angels
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Anthony plagued by demons, engraving
Schongauer in the 1480s.
A demon, daemon, or fiend
is a supernatural, often malevolent being prevalent in religion,
and folklore. The
original Greek word daimon
does not carry the negative connotation initially understood by
implementation of the Koine
and later ascribed to any cognate words sharing the root.
Near Eastern religions as well as in the Abrahamic
traditions, including ancient and medieval Christian
demonology, a demon is considered an unclean
spirit, a fallen
angel, or a spirit of unknown type which may cause demonic
possession, calling for an exorcism.
In Western occultism
magic, which grew out of an amalgamation of Greco-Roman
demonology and Christian tradition,
a demon is a spiritual entity that may be conjured
Further information: Daemon
(classical mythology), Agathodaemon,
the 10th spirit, who teaches "Moral and Natural Philosophy"
(from a 1995 Mathers edition. Illustration by Louis Breton from
Greek word δαίμων
denotes a spirit or divine power, much like the Latin
Daimōn most likely came from the Greek verb daiesthai
(to divide, distribute).
The Greek conception of a daimōns notably appears in the
works of Plato,
where it describes the divine inspiration of Socrates.
To distinguish the classical Greek concept from its later Christian
interpretation, the former is anglicized as either daemon or
daimon rather than demon.
terms do not have any connotations of evil or malevolence. In fact,
(literally good-spiritedness) means happiness. By the early Roman
statues were seen, by pagans and their Christian neighbors alike,
as inhabited by the numinous presence of the gods: "Like pagans,
Christians still sensed and saw the gods and their power, and as
something, they had to assume, lay behind it, by an easy traditional
shift of opinion they turned these pagan daimones into
malevolent 'demons', the troupe of Satan.....
Far into the Byzantine period Christians eyed their cities' old pagan
statuary as a seat of the demons' presence. It was no longer
beautiful, it was infested."
The term had first acquired its negative connotations in the
translation of the Hebrew
Bible into Greek, which drew on the mythology of ancient
Semitic religions. This was then inherited by the Koine text of
Testament. The Western medieval and neo-medieval conception of a
derives seamlessly from the ambient popular culture of Late (Roman)
Antiquity. The Hellenistic "daemon" eventually came to
include many Semitic and Near Eastern gods as evaluated by
The supposed existence of demons remains
an important concept in many modern religions and occultist
traditions. Demons are still feared largely due to their alleged
power to possess
living creatures. In the contemporary Western occultist tradition
(perhaps epitomized by the work of Aleister
Crowley), a demon (such as Choronzon,
the Demon of the Abyss) is a useful metaphor for certain inner
psychological processes (inner demons), though some may also regard
it as an objectively real phenomenon. Some scholars
believe that large portions of the demonology
(see Asmodai) of
Judaism, a key
influence on Christianity
originated from a later form of Zoroastrianism,
and were transferred to Judaism during the Persian era.
The classic Japanese
demon, an ogre-like creature which often has horns.
remarked that "among the activities attributed by myths all over
the world to demons, the harmful predominate, so that in popular
belief bad demons are clearly older than good ones."
developed this idea and claimed that the concept of demons was
derived from the important relation of the living to the dead: "The
fact that demons are always regarded as the spirits of those who have
died recently shows better than anything the influence of
mourning on the origin of the belief in demons."
M. Scott Peck,
an American psychiatrist, wrote two books on the subject, People
of the Lie: The Hope For Healing Human Evil
and Glimpses of the Devil: A Psychiatrist's Personal Accounts of
Possession, Exorcism, and Redemption.
Peck describes in some detail several cases involving his patients.
In People of the Lie he provides identifying characteristics
of an evil person, whom he classified as having a character disorder.
In Glimpses of the Devil Peck goes into significant detail
describing how he became interested in exorcism
in order to debunk the myth of possession
by evil spirits – only to be convinced otherwise after
encountering two cases which did not fit into any category known to
Peck came to the conclusion that possession was a rare phenomenon
related to evil, and that possessed people are not actually evil;
rather, they are doing battle with the forces of evil.
Although Peck's earlier work was met with widespread popular
acceptance, his work on the topics of evil and possession has
generated significant debate and derision. Much was made of his
association with (and admiration for) the controversial Malachi
Martin, a Roman
Catholic priest and a former Jesuit,
despite the fact that Peck consistently called Martin a liar and
Richard Woods, a Roman Catholic priest and theologian, has claimed
that Dr. Peck misdiagnosed patients based upon a lack of knowledge
identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality
disorder), and had apparently transgressed the boundaries of
ethics by attempting to persuade his patients into accepting
Father Woods admitted that he has never witnessed a genuine case of
demonic possession in all his years.
Ancient Near East
Human-headed winged bull, otherwise known as a Lamassu
Encyclopedia, "In Chaldean
mythology the seven evil deities were known as shedu,
storm-demons, represented in ox-like form."
They were represented as winged
bulls, derived from the colossal bulls used as protective jinn of
From Chaldea, the term shedu traveled to the Israelites.
The writers of the Tanach applied the word as a dialogism
to Canaanite deities.
are indications that demons in popular Hebrew mythology were believed
to come from the nether world.
Various diseases and ailments were ascribed to them, particularly
those affecting the brain and those of internal nature. Examples
include the catalepsy, headache, epilepsy and nightmares. There also
existed a demon of blindness, "Shabriri" (lit. "dazzling
glare") who rested on uncovered water at night and blinded those
who drank from it.
supposedly entered the body and caused the disease while overwhelming
or "seizing" the victim. To cure such diseases, it was
necessary to draw out the evil demons by certain incantations and
talismanic performances, which the Essenes
excelled at. Josephus,
who spoke of demons as "spirits of the wicked which enter into
men that are alive and kill them", but which could be driven out
by a certain root,
witnessed such a performance in the presence of the Emperor
and ascribed its origin to King
Solomon. In mythology, there were few defences against Babylonian
demons. The mythical mace Sharur
had the power to slay demons such as Asag,
a legendary gallu or
edimmu of hideous
mythology did not differentiate between gods and demons. Jinn
were considered divinities of inferior rank and had many human
abilities, such as eating, drinking and procreating. While most jinn
were considered peaceful and well-disposed towards humans, there also
existed evil jinn who contrived to injure people.
Lilith, by John
the Hebrew Bible
are of two classes: the se'irim ("hairy beings")
and the shedim.[citation
needed] The se'irim, to which some Israelites
offered sacrifices in the open fields, were satyr-like
creatures, described as dancing in the wilderness (Isaiah
"The Israelites also offered sacrifices to the shedim (Deut.
xxxii. 17; Ps. cvi. 37)".
some rabbinic sources, demons were believed to be under the dominion
of a king or chief, either Asmodai
or, in the older Haggadah,
angel of death", also called the "chief of the devils"),
who killed via poison. Occasionally a demon was called satan:
"Stand not in the way of an ox when coming from the pasture, for
Satan dances between his horns".
Demonology never became an essential feature of Jewish
needed] However, the existence of demons was never questioned
by the Talmudists
and late rabbis, nor did most of the medieval thinkers question their
reality. Only rationalists like Maimonides
ibn Ezra explicitly denied their existence. Their point of view
eventually became mainstream Jewish understanding.
demonology has three classes of demons, though they are scarcely
separable one from another. There were the shedim,
the mazziḳim ("harmers"), and the ruḥin
("spirits"). There were also lilin
("night spirits"), ṭelane ("shade",
or "evening spirits"), ṭiharire ("midday
spirits"), and ẓafrire ("morning spirits"),
as well as the "demons that bring famine" and "such as
cause storm and earthquake".
Demons are sometimes included
into biblical interpretation. In the story of Passover, the Bible
tells the story as "the Lord struck down all the firstborn in
Egypt" (Exodus 12:21–29). In Jubilees, which is considered
canonical only by the Ethiopian
Orthodox Church as well as Bete
Israel (Ethiopian Jews),
this same event is told slightly differently: "All the powers of
[the demon] Mastema had been let loose to slay all the first-born in
the land of Egypt...And the powers of the Lord did everything
according as the Lord commanded them" (Jubilees 49:2–4).
In Genesis in the story of the flood,
the author explains how God was noticing "how corrupt the earth
had become, for all the people on earth had corrupted their ways"
(Genesis 6:12). In Jubilees the sins of man are attributed to "the
unclean demons [who] began to lead astray the children of the sons of
Noah, and to make to err and destroy them" (Jubilees 10:1). In
Jubilees Mastema questions the loyalty of Abraham and tells God to
"bid him offer him as a burnt offering on the altar, and Thou
wilt see if he will do this command" (Jubilees 17:16). The
discrepancy between the story in Jubilees and the story in Genesis 22
exists with the presence of Mastema. In Genesis, God tests the will
of Abraham merely to determine whether he is a true follower,
however; in Jubilees Mastema has an agenda behind promoting the
sacrifice of Abraham’s son, "an even more demonic act than
that of the Satan in Job."
See also: Apotropaic
Throughout history, many cultures and
religions have utilized apotropaic prayers and incantations to
"defend the sons of light from the forces of darkness within the
cosmic conflict in which they were locked".
The Jewish community in the Second Temple Period is a perfect example
of using these religious and magical tools for the purpose of
protection from demons.
Many choose to talk about His powers
over wickedness as a tool for scaring away potential demons, because
they believed that a "solemn proclamation of God’s power
will protect the community and its members from attacks by
The Qumran community during the Second Temple Period wrote this
apotropaic prayer stating: "And, I the Sage, declare the
grandeur of his radiance in order to frighten and terri[fy] all the
spirits of the ravaging angels and the bastard spirits, demons,
Liliths, owls" (Dead Sea Scrolls, "Songs of the
Sage," Lines 4–5).
Some sacred rituals would be used for
healing. One example of incantations used for healing can be seen in
Tobit: "Then the angel said to him: Take out the entrails
of the fish, and lay up his heart, and his gall, and his liver for
thee: for these are necessary for useful medicines. And when he had
done so, he roasted the flesh thereof, and they took it with them in
the way: the rest they salted as much as might serve them, till they
came to Rages the city of the Medes. Then Tobias asked the angel, and
said to him: I beseech thee, brother Azarias, tell me what remedies
are these things good for, which thou hast bid me keep of the fish?
And the angel, answering, said to him: If thou put a little piece of
its heart upon coals, the smoke thereof driveth away all kind of
devils, either from man or from woman, so that they come no more to
them" (Tobit 6:5–8). These practices, as opposed to
other medical practices, were used because "resorting to doctors
would be considered unacceptable, as this could be thought to
encroach upon a divine prerogative".
Other incantations were used to ward
off other kinds of evil spirits: "For they who in such manner
receive matrimony, as to shut out God from themselves, and from their
mind, and to give themselves to their lust, as the horse and mule,
which have not understanding, over them the devil hath power. But
thou when thou shalt take her, go into the chamber, and for three
days keep thyself continent from her, and give thyself to nothing
else but to prayers with her" (Tobit 17–18). Also
this way, if misfortune was not averted, people would be able to
validate the horrors in the world with the knowledge that "sickness
and other misfortunes experienced by people are ultimately the result
of human wrongdoing and transgression".
under divine authority
Demons, despite being typically associated with evil, are often shown
to be under divine control, and not acting of their own devices.
In the War Scrolls, Belial controls scores of demons, which
are specifically allotted to him by God for the purpose of performing
Belial, despite his malevolent disposition, is considered an angel,
and therefore is of divine origin.
A similar circumstance appears in
Jubilees, where Mastema, an angel tasked with the tempting of mortals
into sin and iniquity, requests that God give him a tenth of the
spirits of the children of the watchers, demons, in order to aid the
These demons are passed into Mastema’s authority, where once
again, an angel is in charge of demonic spirits.
God is shown sending a demon against
Saul in 1 Samuel 16 and 18 in order to punish him for the failure to
follow God’s instructions, showing God as having the power to
use demons for his own purposes, putting the demon under divine
The sources of demonic influence were thought to originate from the
or Nephilim, who
are first mentioned in Genesis 6 and are the focus of 1 Enoch
Chapters 1–16, and also in Jubilees 10. The Nephilim were seen
as the source of the sin and evil on earth because they are
referenced in Genesis 6:4 before the story of the Flood.
In Genesis 6:5, God sees evil in the hearts of men. The passage
states, “the wickedness of humankind on earth was great”,
and that “Every inclination of the thoughts of their hearts was
only continually evil” (Genesis 5). The mention of the Nephilim
in the preceding sentence connects the spread of evil to the
Nephilim. Enoch is a very similar story to Genesis 6:4–5, and
provides further description of the story connecting the Nephilim to
the corruption of humans. In Enoch, sin originates when angels
descend from heaven and fornicate women, birthing giants as tall as
300 cubits. The giants and the angels’ departure of Heaven and
mating with human women are also seen as the source of sorrow and
sadness on Earth. The book of Enoch shows that these fallen angels
can lead humans to sin through direct interaction or through
providing forbidden knowledge. In Enoch, Semyaz leads the angels to
mate with women. Angels mating with humans is against God’s
commands and is a cursed action, resulting in the wrath of God coming
upon Earth. Azazel indirectly influences humans to sin by teaching
them divine knowledge not meant for humans. Asael brings down the
“stolen mysteries” (Enoch 16:3). Asael gives the humans
weapons, which they use to kill each other. Humans are also taught
other sinful actions such as beautification techniques, alchemy,
astrology and how to make medicine (considered forbidden knowledge at
the time). Demons originate from the evil spirits of the giants that
are cursed by God to wander the earth. These spirits are stated in
Enoch to “corrupt, fall, be excited, and fall upon the earth,
and cause sorrow” (Enoch 15:11).
The Book of Jubilees conveys that sin occurs when Cainan accidentally
transcribes astrological knowledge used by the Watchers (Jubilees 8).
This differs from Enoch in that it does not place blame on the
Angels. However in Jubilees 10:4 the evil spirits of the Watchers are
discussed as evil and still remain on earth to corrupt the humans.
God binds only 90 percent of the Watchers and destroys them, leaving
10 percent to be ruled by Mastema. Because the evil in humans is
great, only 10 percent would be needed to corrupt and lead humans
astray. These spirits of the giants also referred to as “the
bastards” in the Apotropaic prayer Songs of the Sage, which
lists the names of demons the narrator hopes to expel.
Curses of Belial (Dead Sea Scrolls,
394, 4Q286(4Q287, fr. 6)=4QBerakhot) In the Dead
Sea Scrolls, there exists a fragment entitled “Curses of
Belial” (4Q286(4Q287, fr. 6)=4QBerakhot). This fragment holds
much rich language that reflects the sentiment shared between the
Belial. In many
ways this text shows how these people thought Belial influenced sin
through the way they address him and speak of him. By addressing
“Belial and all his guilty lot,” (4Q286:2) they make it
clear that he is not only impious, but also guilty of sins. Informing
this state of uncleanliness are both his “hostile” and
“wicked design” (4Q286:3,4). Through this design, Belial
poisons the thoughts of those who are not necessarily sinners. Thus a
dualism is born from those inclined to be wicked and those who
It is clear that Belial directly influences sin by the mention of
“abominable plots” and “guilty inclination”
(4Q286:8,9). These are both mechanisms by which Belial advances his
evil agenda that the Qumran have exposed and are calling upon God to
protect them from. There is a deep sense of fear that Belial will
“establish in their heart their evil devices”
(4Q286:11,12). This sense of fear is the stimulus for this prayer in
the first place. Without the worry and potential of falling victim to
Belial’s demonic sway, the Qumran people would never feel
impelled to craft a curse. This very fact illuminates the power
Belial was believed to hold over mortals, and the fact that sin
proved to be a temptation that must stem from an impure origin.
1:20, Belial’s appearance continues to support the notion that
sin is a direct product of his influence. Moreover, Belial’s
presence acts as a placeholder for all negative influences or those
that would potentially interfere with God’s will and a pious
existence. Similarly to the “gentiles…[who] cause them
to sin against you” (Jubilees 1:19), Belial is associated with
a force that drives one away from God. Coupled in this plea for
protection against foreign rule, in this case the Egyptians, is a
plea for protection from “the spirit of Belial” (Jubilees
1:19). Belial’s tendency is to “ensnare [you] from every
path of righteousness” (Jubilees 1:19). This phrase is
intentionally vague, allowing room for interpretation. Everyone, in
one way or another, finds themselves straying from the path of
righteousness and by pawning this transgression off on Belial, he
becomes a scapegoat for all misguidance, no matter what the cause. By
associating Belial with all sorts of misfortune and negative external
influence, the Qumran people are henceforth allowed to be let off for
the sins they commit.
presence is found throughout the War Scrolls, located in the Dead Sea
Scrolls, and is established as the force occupying the opposite end
of the spectrum of God. In Col. I, verse 1, the very first line of
the document, it is stated that “the first attack of the Sons
of Light shall be undertaken against the forces of the Sons of
Darkness, the army of Belial” (1Q33;1:1).
This dichotomy sheds light on the negative connotations that Belial
held at the time.
Where God and his Sons of Light are forces that protect and promote
piety, Belial and his Sons of Darkness cater to the opposite,
instilling the desire to sin and encouraging destruction. This
opposition is only reinforced later in the document; it continues to
read that the “holy ones” will “strike a blow at
wickedness,” ultimately resulting in the “annihilation of
the Sons of Darkness” (1Q33:1:13). This epic battle between
good and evil described in such abstract terms, however it is also
applicable to everyday life and serves as a lens through which the
Qumran see the world. Every day is the Sons of Light battle evil and
call upon God to help them overcome evil in ways small and large.
Belial’s influence is not taken lightly. In Col. XI, verse
8, the text depicts God conquering the “hordes of Belial”
(1Q33;11:8). This defeat is indicative of God’s power over
Belial and his forces of temptation. However the fact that Belial is
the leader of hordes is a testament to how persuasive he can be. If
Belial was obviously an arbiter of wrongdoing and was blatantly in
the wrong, he wouldn’t be able to amass an army. This fact
serves as a warning message, reasserting God’s strength, while
also making it extremely clear the breadth of Belial’s prowess.
Belial’s “council is to condemn and convict,” so
the Qumran feel strongly that their people are not only aware of his
purpose, but also equipped to combat his influence (1Q33;13:11).
In the Damascus
Document, Belial also makes a prominent appearance, being
established as a source of evil and an origin of several types of
sin. In Column 4, the first mention of Belial reads: “Belial
shall be unleashed against Israel” (4Q266). This phrase is able
to be interpreted myriad different ways. Belial is characterized in a
wild and uncontrollable fashion, making him seem more dangerous and
unpredictable. The notion of being unleashed is such that once he is
free to roam; he is unstoppable and able to carry out his agenda
uninhibited. The passage then goes to enumerate the “three
nets” (4Q266;4:16) by which Belial captures his prey and forces
them to sin. “Fornication…, riches…, [and] the
profanation of the temple” (4Q266;4:17,18) make up the three
nets. These three temptations were three agents by which people were
driven to sin, so subsequently, the Qumran people crafted the nets of
Belial to rationalize why these specific temptations were so toxic.
Later in Column 5, Belial is mentioned again as one of “the
removers of bound who led Israel astray” (4Q266;5:20). This
statement is a clear display of Belial’s influence over man
regarding sin. The passage goes on to state: “they preached
rebellion against…God” (4Q266;5:21,22). Belial’s
purpose is to undermine the teachings of God, and he achieves this by
imparting his nets on humans, or the incentive to sin.
See also: Kabbalah
Some benevolent shedim were used in kabbalistic ceremonies
(as with the golem
of Rabbi Yehuda Loevy) and malevolent shedim (mazikin,
from the root meaning "to damage") were often credited with
possession. Similarly, a shed might inhabit an otherwise
Main articles: Christian
demonology and Exorcism
and the Miser (detail), a Hieronymus
Bosch painting, National
Gallery of Art, Washington,
religions, the deities of other religions
are sometimes interpreted or created as demons.
The evolution of the Christian
Devil and pentagram
are examples of early rituals and images that showcase evil
qualities, as seen by the Christian churches.
Christianity, demonology has developed from a simple acceptance
of demons to a complex study that has grown from the original ideas
taken from Jewish
demonology and Christian scriptures. Christian demonology is
studied in depth within the Roman
although many other Christian churches affirm and discuss the
existence of demons.
Building upon the few references to daemons in the New
Testament, especially the poetry of the Book of Revelation, Christian
writers of apocrypha
from the 2nd century onwards created a more complicated tapestry of
beliefs about "demons" that was largely independent of
The contemporary Roman Catholic Church
unequivocally teaches that angels and demons are real beings rather
than just symbolic devices. The Catholic Church has a cadre of
officially sanctioned exorcists which perform many exorcisms
each year. The exorcists of the Catholic Church teach that demons
attack humans continually but that afflicted persons can be
effectively healed and protected either by the formal rite of
exorcism, authorized to be performed only by bishops and those they
designate, or by prayers of deliverance, which any Christian can
offer for themselves or others.
At various times in Christian history, attempts have been made to
classify demons according to various proposed demonic
In the Gospels, particularly the Gospel
of Mark, Jesus cast out many demons from those afflicted with
various ailments. He also lent this power to some of his disciples
of Hippo, is ambiguous as to whether daemons had become
'demonized' by the early 5th century:
[Apulieus] also states that the blessed are called in Greek
eudaimones, because they are good souls, that is to say, good
demons, confirming his opinion that the souls of men are demons.
While some people fear demons, or
attempt to exorcise them, others willfully attempt to summon them for
knowledge, assistance, or power. The ceremonial magician usually
consults a grimoire,
which gives the names and abilities of demons as well as detailed
instructions for conjuring and controlling them. Grimoires aren't
limited to demons - some give the names of angels or spirits which
can be called, a process called theurgy.
The use of ceremonial magic to call demons is also known as goetia,
the name taken from a section within the famous grimoire "The
Lesser Key of Solomon".
According to Rosemary
Ellen Guiley, "Demons are not courted or worshipped in
contemporary Wicca and Paganism. The existence of negative energies
al Jinn cave in Oman,
literally "Meeting place of the Jinn".
See also: Devil
(Islam) and Jinn
§ Jinn in Islam
the existence of jinn,
which are sentient beings with free will that can co-exist with
humans (though not the genies of modern lore). In Islam, evil jinn
are referred to as the shayātīn or demons/devils,
(Satan) as their chief. Iblis was one of the first jinn; he disobeyed
Allah and did
not bow down before Adam refusing to acknowledge a creature made of
"clay". Thus, Iblis was condemned to jahannam
(hell). He asked for respite until the Last
Day (Judgement Day), when he vowed to make mankind fall and deny
the existence of their creator, to which Allah replied that Iblis
would only be able to mislead those who were not righteous believers,
warning that Iblis and all who followed him in evil would be punished
Hinduism includes numerous varieties of spirits that might be
classified as demons, including Vetalas,
Asuras are often
also taken as demons.
The Army of Super Creatures – from The Sougandhika Parinaya
Manuscript (1821 CE)
Originally, Asura, in the earliest hymns of the Rig
Veda, meant any supernatural spirit, either good or bad. Since
the /s/ of the Indic linguistic branch is cognate with the /h/ of the
Early Iranian languages, the word Asura, representing a
category of celestial beings, became the word Ahura (Mazda),
the Supreme God of the monotheistic Zoroastrians.
Ancient Hinduism tells that Devas
(also called suras) and Asuras
are half-brothers, sons of the same father Kasyapa; although some of
the Devas, such as Varuna,
are also called Asuras. Later, during Puranic
age, Asura and
Rakshasa came to
exclusively mean any of a race of anthropomorphic, powerful, possibly
evil beings. Daitya (lit. sons of the mother "Diti"),
Rakshasa (lit. from "harm to be guarded against"), and
Asura are incorrectly translated into English as "demon".
In Hindu mythology, pious, highly enlightened Asuras, such as
are not uncommon. The Asura are not fundamentally against the gods,
nor do they tempt humans to fall. This is markedly different from the
traditional Western notions of demons as a rival army of God but
comparable with the concept of the jinns
Many people metaphorically interpret the Asura as manifestations of
the ignoble passions in the human mind and as a symbolic devices.
There were also cases of power-hungry Asuras challenging various
aspects of the Gods, but only to be defeated eventually and seek
Hinduism advocates the reincarnation and transmigration of souls
according to one's karma.
of the dead are adjudged by the Yama
and are accorded various purging punishments before being reborn.
Humans that have committed extraordinary wrongs are condemned to roam
as lonely, often evil, spirits for a length of time before being
reborn. Many kinds of such spirits (Vetalas,
are recognized in the later Hindu texts. These beings, in a limited
sense, can be called demons.
In the Bahá'í
Faith, demons are not regarded as independent evil spirits as
they are in some faiths. Rather, evil spirits described in various
faiths' traditions, such as Satan, fallen angels, demons and jinns,
are metaphors for the base character traits a human being may acquire
and manifest when he turns away from God and follows his lower
nature. Belief in the existence of ghosts and earthbound spirits is
rejected and considered to be the product of superstition.
M.S. (2005). Glimpses of the Devil: A Psychiatrist's Personal
Accounts of Possession, Exorcism, and Redemption.
devil you know, National Catholic Reporter, April 29, 2005, a
commentary on Glimpses of the Devil by Richard Woods
See Delitzsch, Assyrisches Handwörterbuch. pp. 60, 253,
261, 646; Jensen, Assyr.-Babyl. Mythen und Epen, 1900, p.
Sayce, l.c. pp. 441, 450, 463; Lenormant,
l.c. pp. 48–51.
Berstein, Angels at the Aqedah: A Study in the Development of a
Midrashic Motif, (Dead Sea Discoveries, 7, 2000), 267.
Florentino Martinez Garcia, Magic in the Dead Sea Scrolls: The
Metamorphosis of Magic: From Late Antiquity to the Early Modern
Period, compilers Jan Bremmer and Jan R. Veenstra (Leuven:
Peeters, 2003), 13–23.
SN Chiu, “Historical, Religious, and Medical Perspective of
Possession Phonomenon” in Hong Kong Journal of Psychiatry,
(East Asian Archives of Psychiatry, 2000).
Author=Frey, J. Title=DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF DUALISTIC THOUGHT IN THE
QUMRAN LIBRARY IN: Legal Texts And Legal Issues, Year=1984, p. 287
Author=Frey, J. Title=DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF DUALISTIC THOUGHT IN THE
QUMRAN LIBRARY IN: Legal Texts And Legal Issues, Year=1984, p. 278
der Toorn, Becking, van der Horst (1999), Dictionary of Deities
and Demons in The Bible, Second Extensively Revised Edition,
Entry: Demon, pp. 235-240, William B. Eerdmans Publishing
Sancta Missa - Rituale Romanum, 1962, at sanctamissa.org,
Copyright © 2007. Canons Regular of St. John Cantius
Hansen, Chadwick (1970), Witchcraft at Salem, p. 132, Signet
Classics, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 69-15825
Modica, Terry Ann (1996), Overcoming The Power of The Occult,
p. 31, Faith Publishing Company, ISBN
Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 112.
Baglio, Matt (2009). The Rite: The Making of a Modern Exorcist.
Doubleday Religion. ISBN 0385522703.
Amorth, Fr. Gabriele (1999). An Exorcist Tells His Story.
Ignatius Press. ISBN 0898707102.
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